Dating dispersal and radiation in the gymnosperm gnetum online dating cebu philippines
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Yet compared to angiosperms, little is known about the patterns of diversification and genome evolution in gymnosperms.
These studies have largely focused on finding morphological, biogeographic, or life history correlates of genome size, but the rates and patterns of genome size evolution in gymnosperms are largely unknown.
This study first synthesizes the available phylogenetically informative sequences to build a phylogenetic hypothesis of gymnosperms that reflects the recent advances in sequencing and computational phylogenetics.
appear to have rafted from Africa to South America.
An example of a bird that is thought to have reached its present location by rafting is the weak-flying South American hoatzin, whose ancestors apparently floated over from Africa.
These studies suggest that the large genome size may be caused by rapid expansion of retrotransposons and may be limited to conifers, Pinaceae, or Pinus.
We first downloaded from Gen Bank all core nucleotide sequence data from gymnosperms (Coniferophyta, Cycadophyta, Ginkgophyta, and Gnetophyta).Recent sequencing efforts have elucidated some of genomic characteristics associated with the large genome size in Pinus.  identified a large retrotransposon family in Pinus, that, with other retrotransposon families, accounts for much of the genomic complexity.Similarly, recent sequencing of 10 BAC (bacterial artificial chromosome) clones from Pinus taeda identified many conifer-specific LTR (long terminal repeat) retroelements .However, oceanic dispersal of terrestrial species may not always take the form of rafting; in some cases, swimming or simply floating may suffice.Tortoises of the genus Chelonoidis arrived in South America from Africa in the Oligocene; The first documented example of colonization of a land mass by rafting occurred in the aftermath of hurricanes Luis and Marilyn in the Caribbean in 1995.
We assembled a phylogenetic supermatrix containing over 4.5 million nucleotides from 739 gymnosperm taxa.