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This period saw many advancements in literature, art, and science.
Buddhism, which had reached Korea by way of China, was practiced by virtually all of Silla society.
Still, the country was left in tatters from the war.
Korea suffered more attacks in 16, this time at the hands of the Manchus, who later conquered China.
Medical knowledge also developed during the thirteenth century.
Evolving out of local Korean folk remedies and Chinese practices, Korean medical science was recorded in books such as Emergency Remedies of Folk Medicine and Folk Remedies of Samhwaja.
Mongolian forces invaded Koryo in 1231 and occupied the kingdom until 1368.
The Chinese Ming dynasty forced the Mongols back to the far north.
Stretching southward from Manchuria and Siberia for close to 600 miles (966 kilometers), it extends down to the Korea Strait.
South Korea's government is an emergent democracy, and Seoul—Korea's largest city—is its capital.
An estimated 67 million people live on the Korean peninsula, with a population of approximately 43.9 million in South Korea and another 23.1 million residing in North Korea.
This struggle eventually led to the fall of Koryo in 1392, when General Yi Song-Gye revolted against the king and founded the Yi dynasty.
In control until the early twentieth century, it proved to be Korea's longest reigning dynasty and one of the most enduring regimes in history.
The most advanced of these, Old Choson, was located in the basin of the Liao and Taedong rivers, where Pyongyang is situated today.